Feb 07

Napoleonic Wars

After which George III recovered from his illness, his prestige increased considerably. The French Revolution, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France subsequently declared war on the United Kingdom in 1793, George III and soon represented the British resistance. The king allowed Pitt to increase taxes, and armies formed to suspend the privilege of writing for habeas corpus by the beginning of the war.
Well prepared for United Kingdom was, France was stronger. The First Coalition (which included Austria, Prussia and Spain) was defeated in 1798. The Second Coalition (which included Austria, Russia and the Ottoman Empire) was defeated in 1800. In the end, United Kingdom had to fight alone against Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.
In the same year of 1800, a brief lull in fighting allowed Pitt to focus on Ireland, where there was an uprising in 1798. Parliament then passed the Act of Union of 1800, which was established since January 1, 1801, United Kingdom and Ireland would become a single nation, known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. George III took the opportunity to renounce any claim on the throne of France, which English sovereigns and British had maintained since the reign of Edward III. Sometimes it is suggested that George III agree to abandon its claims in accordance with the Treaty of Paris or the Treaty of Amiens. Chronologically, this would have no logic, the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802 (after which George III had formally renounced the throne of France). It has been suggested that George was given the title “Emperor of the British and Hanover, but the rejection. A.G. Stapleton wrote to George III felt that his true dignity consisted in what was known in Europe and the world, the proper and undisputed style belonging to the British crown. “
The unpopularity of Pitt plan to increase when removing certain legal disabilities that had been applied to Roman Catholics after the union. George III declared that the “emancipated” Catholics had done to violate his coronation oath, in which the rulers promised to maintain Protestantism. The king exclaimed: “Is this where the power on earth that may acquit the observance of every sentence of that oath, particularly where this requires me to maintain the Protestant reformed religion ‘… No, no, I would prefer to ask bread from door to door through Europe, to consent to any action for the Catholics. I can relinquish my crown and retire from power. I can quit my palace and live in a hut. I can put my head in and lose the scaffold life, but I can not break my oath. “
Faced with the clear opposition to their religious policy, Pitt threatened to resign. Meanwhile, the king suffered another attack of madness, but recovered quickly. On March 14, 1801 Pitt was formally replaced by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Henry Addington. As Addington was a close friend, Pitt remained as his private counsel. The ministry of Addington was particularly inconsequential, because it was almost no reform or further action was taken. In fact, the nation was strongly against any idea of reform, for fear that they played the French Revolution. Although called a peaceful behavior in the United Kingdom, the public want a strong action in Europe, but Addington could not do it. In October 1801, made peace with France, and in 1802 signed the Treaty of Amiens.
George III did not take the peace with France as “real”, but was just an experiment. In 1803, the two nations were again declare war. In 1804, George III was again affected by porphyria, as soon as it was able to continue his government, he discovered that Henry Addington was hated by the public and was not trusted to lead the nation at war. In its place, the public tended to put more faith in William Pitt the Younger. Pitt attempted to appoint Carlos James Fox in his ministry, but George III refused. The king had aversion to Fox, who had encouraged the Prince of Wales to lead an extravagant life and costly. William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville saw this as an injustice to Fox, and fail to enter the new ministry.
Pitt then concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia and Sweden. The Third Coalition, however, had the same purpose as the First and Second Coalitions, being defeated in 1805. An invasion by Napoleon seemed imminent, but that possibility disappeared after Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, got the famous victory at the Battle of Trafalgar (October 21, 1805).
The setbacks in Europe affected the health of William Pitt.

Chicago Tribune
Millvina Dean, the last survivor of the Titanic, the ocean liner that sank on its maiden voyage in April 1912 after the collision with an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean, now deceased. She was 97.
Knoxville News Sentinel
Colle-sur-Mer, France – A former U.S. soldier, making what he says is his last mission, received the thanks of the French population and its own people the president Saturday for a share of the generation that saved the world from tyranny 65 years ago.
BBC News
British veterans take part in a series of events in France on the eve of the 65th anniversary of the invasion of Normandy.
San Diego 6
Queen Sofia